Deprecated: Non-static method JUtility::parseAttributes() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 382

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::getModules() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/modules.php on line 40

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::_load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 88

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 63

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 64

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::renderModule() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 384

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getLanguage() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 168

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::getBool() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 199

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 217

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Deprecated: Non-static method JUtility::parseAttributes() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 382

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Deprecated: Non-static method JUtility::parseAttributes() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 382

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::getModules() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/modules.php on line 40

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::_load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 88

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 63

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 64

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::renderModule() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 384

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getLanguage() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 168

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::getBool() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 199

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 217

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Deprecated: Non-static method JUtility::parseAttributes() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 382

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::getModule() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 41

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::_load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 42

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 63

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 64

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::renderModule() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 384

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getLanguage() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 168

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::getBool() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 199

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 217

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Deprecated: Non-static method JUtility::parseAttributes() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 382

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::getModules() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/modules.php on line 40

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::_load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 88

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 63

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 64

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::renderModule() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 384

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getLanguage() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 168

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::getBool() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 199

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 217

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Deprecated: Non-static method JUtility::parseAttributes() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 382

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::getModules() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/modules.php on line 40

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::_load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 88

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 63

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 64

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JModuleHelper::renderModule() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 84

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 384

Deprecated: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getLanguage() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 168

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::getBool() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 199

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 217

Deprecated: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Deprecated: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Deprecated: Non-static method JUtility::parseAttributes() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 382

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Deprecated: Non-static method JResponse::setHeader() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/document.php on line 776

Deprecated: Non-static method JResponse::setHeader() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/document/document.php on line 780

Deprecated: Non-static method JResponse::setBody() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/includes/application.php on line 169

Deprecated: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 501

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/plugins/system/sef.php on line 47

Deprecated: Non-static method JURI::base() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/plugins/system/sef.php on line 54

Deprecated: Non-static method JResponse::getBody() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/plugins/system/sef.php on line 55

Deprecated: Non-static method JRoute::_() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/plugins/system/sef.php on line 99

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/methods.php on line 41

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/includes/application.php on line 372

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Deprecated: Non-static method JRouter::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 655

Deprecated: Non-static method JError::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 656

Deprecated: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/includes/router.php on line 395

Deprecated: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/includes/application.php on line 345

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Deprecated: Non-static method JMenu::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 701

Deprecated: Non-static method JError::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 702

Deprecated: Non-static method JURI::base() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/includes/router.php on line 101

Deprecated: Non-static method JResponse::setBody() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/plugins/system/sef.php on line 82

Deprecated: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 384

Strict Standards: Non-static method JResponse::toString() should not be called statically in /homepages/14/d264216859/htdocs/joomla/index.php on line 88

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Zur Belanglosigkeit der Gesetze

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Zur Belanglosigkeit der Gesetze PDF Drucken E-Mail
Geschrieben von: Adalbert Podlech   
Dienstag, 27. Januar 2009 um 22:36 Uhr

 

 

Zur Belanglosigkeit der Gesetze

von

Adalbert Podlech

 


Das Gesetz war den Menschen heilig. Gott ist der Gesetzgeber. Nach seiner Ordnung ziehen die Planeten ihre Bahn, laufen die Geschehnisse in der Natur um uns her ab, sollen sich die Menschen verhalten. Gesetzgeber wurden verehrt, Moses, Solon, und noch Friedrich II. von Staufen verkündete seine politische Ordnung als göttliche durch den Logotheten. Für die gesamte Schöpfung einheitlich definierte Thomas von Aquin das Gesetz als die Ordnung der Wirkungen der wirklichen Dinge.

Aber einen wichtigen Unterschied gibt es. Die Natur befolgt die Ordnung des göttlichen Gesetzes aus Notwendigkeit, Engel und Menschen aus Freiheit. Allein sie können sündigen, sie können sich strafbar machen. Und so wurde schon in der Scholastik entdeckt, daß es zwei Arten von Gesetzen gibt, Gesetze als Beschreibung der erfahrbaren Natur und Gesetze als Verhaltensordnung für Menschen. “Beschreibungsgesetze” und “Erlaßgesetze” kann man die beiden Arten nenne. Das Verhältnis dieser beiden Gesetzesarten soll uns beschäftigen.

Erlaßgesetze, normative Gesetze sind einmal staatliche Gesetze, von einem autorisierten Gesetzgeber erlassen. Daneben und davor haben Menschen aber immer wieder angenommen, daß es unveränderliche, dem Zugriff der Menschen entzogene Gesetze gäbe, Naturrecht, Moralgesetze. Wie immer dem sei, im Verlauf der Neuzeit wird das staatlich gesetzte Gesetz als Ordnungsfaktor der Gesellschaft immer wichtiger und nimmt das Moralgesetz als gesellschaftlich ordnendes Regulativ in seiner Bedeutung ab. Den Höhepunkt der theoretischen Anerkennung des staatlich erlassenen Gesetzes brachte die Französische Revolution. Die Verfassung als Gesetz konstituierte die Einheit der Nation, das für alle gleiche Gesetz gilt als der Wille der Nation. Diese Hochschätzung des Gesetzes erhielt sich bei Philosophen und Juristen durch das ganze 19. Jahrhundert bis in unsere Zeit, eine Überschätzung, wie sich heute herausstellt.

Beschreibt man das Verhalten von Individuen und von Institutionen empirisch, so stellt man fest, daß es durch Interessen gesteuert wird. Die Chance, Interessen durchzusetzen, heißt Macht. Macht und Machtdifferenzen sind die wichtigsten Kategorien der Beschreibung von Gesellschaften. Das interessengesteuerte Interessengeflecht der Gesellschaft kann durch empirische Gesetze beschrieben werde, durch psychologische, sozialpsychologische, soziologische und durch ökonomische Gesetze. Staatliche Gesetze werden erlassen, um die durch Beschreibungsgesetze empirisch beschreibbare gesellschaftliche Wirklichkeit zu verändern. Ist die durch Beschreibungsgesetze beschreibbare empirische Wirklichkeit akzeptabel, braucht man keine staatlichen Gesetze. Daraus folgt, daß der Erlaß staatlicher Gesetze immer irgendwelche Interessen von Mitgliedern der Gesellschaft verletzt. Wäre dem nicht so, brauchte man sie nicht.

Warum befolgen Menschen Gesetze? Einfach deswegen weil es Gesetz ist, dürfte die absolute Ausnahme sein. Die Göttlichkeit des staatlichen Gesetzes, die noch der Absolutismus für sich in Anspruch genommen hatte, dürfte heute kaum jemanden bewegen, ein ihm lästiges Gesetz zu befolgen. Die Staatstheorie nimmt daher an, daß letztlich staatliche Macht die Bürger veranlaßt, die Gesetze zu befolgen. Gesetze müssen sanktioniert, mit einer Strafdrohung versehen sein, um effektiv zu gelten. Das Problem ist allerdings komplizierter und ich kann es hier nur andeuten. Menschen befolgen staatliche Gesetze, weil sie es gewöhnt sind, weil sie im Einzelfall oder allgemein keine hinreichend starken Interessen an der Nichtbefolgung haben oder weil ihnen die Phantasie, der Mut oder die Mittel zur Nichtbefolgung fehlen. In dem Maße, in dem die moralisch gelebte Ordnung an Wirksamkeit abnimmt und die individuellen Interessen der Bürger auseinander treten und gegensätzlich werden, in dem Maße nimmt die Wahrscheinlichkeit ab, aus der Geltung staatlicher Gesetze auf das Verhalten von Menschen und Institutionen schließen zu können. Der Schluß vom Sein auf das Sollen ist aus logischen Gründen ungültig. Der Schluß vom Sollen auf das Sein ist empirisch fraglich und auf vielen Gebieten gefährlich. Wer sich im politischen Bereich darauf verläßt, daß der politische Gegner nie verleumdet, dürfte Schwierigkeiten bekommen. Wer sich als ökonomischer Konkurrent darauf verläßt, daß das im Wettbewerb stehende Unternehmen Abfall-, Wasserschutz- und Emisssionsschutzgesetze immer einhält und diese Kosten sauber kalkuliert, dürfte sich bald in einer Außenseiterrolle befinden. Wer als Bürger sich darauf verläßt, daß die Mitbürger das Eigentum in der Ferienwohnung und die Geldbörse in der Einkaufstasche respektieren, wird bald erfahren, daß das Vertrauen auf das Gesetz gefährlich ist. Eine staatlich garantierte Rechtsordnung unter den Bedingungen einer freiheitlich-bürgerlichen, das heißt in erster Linie ökonomisch bestimmten Gesellschaftsordnung kann die Bedingungen der eigenen Durchsetzung nicht garantieren. Die Menschen sind nicht eingeteilt in Gute, die das Gesetz befolgen, und Böse, die es brechen. Es gibt ein Kontinuum von der terroristischen Gruppe, die dem Staat aus Prinzip den Kampf ansagt, über Waffenschieber und Rauschgifthändler mit Milliardenumsätzen, über Unternehmungen, zu deren Strategie die Vergiftung der Umwelt gehört, über Politikergruppen, die zur Vermehrung ihrer Macht Recht und Gesetz brechen bis hin zu den Bürgern, die sich überlegen, ob sie im Einzelfall einen Rechtsverstoß riskieren, eine falsche Steuererklärung abgeben oder in der U-Bahn schwarzfahren. Wir sind, um mit Luther zu sprechen, Sünder und Gerechte allzumal, Befolger des Gesetzes, wo’s uns nützt oder uns nicht schadet, Übertreter des Gesetzes, wo wir meinen, Vorteile zu haben. Untersucht man die Verhaltensmaximen, nach denen Menschen oder Institutionen sich tatsächlich verhalten, empirisch, so stellt man fest, daß es zahlreiche Regeln gibt, die Rechtsregeln aber nur einen gewissen Anteil besitzen. Ich stelle die Hypothese auf, daß dieser Anteil in modernen Gesellschaften immer kleiner wird. Ich vermute, daß das Gesetz aufhört, eine die Gesellschaft maßgeblich bestimmende Größe zu sein. Industriealisierte, durch ökonomische Gesetze determinierte Gesellschaften sind weder international noch national rechtlich regelbar.


aus: Gesetz und Geschichte. Europäisches Forum Alpbach 1989, hg. von Otto Molden, Wien 1989, S. 209-212

 

Zuletzt aktualisiert am Dienstag, 27. Januar 2009 um 22:42 Uhr
 

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